Demand-side issues associated with the residential and commercial sectors are in focus of this research area. In this context, demand-side management (DSM) is a central concept. DSM includes a large variety of activities, such as conservation, efficiency measures, and load shifting. Increasing consumer awareness and the prospects for facilitating the integration of renewable electricity generation is likely to lead to a tighter linkage between demand and supply. Therefore, increased demand flexibility will play a key role in the transformation to a more sustainable electricity system. A special research topic deals with electric vehicles and the possible linkages to variable electricity generation.